Though Sweeney's work is years away from trials in humans, that doesn't mean that others might not be quietly moving ahead, eager to reap the benefits. They're taking a big risk by doing it, but nevertheless it's out there, and they could be trying it," says Andy Miah, a bioethicist whose book "Genetically Modified Athletes: Biomedical Ethics, Gene Doping and Sport," was published last month in Britain.
PDF Genetically Modified Athletes: Biomedical Ethics Gene Doping and Sport (Ethics and Sport)
As last year's sports scandal over the designer steroid THG and the continuing drug disqualifications at this year's Olympics show, "athletes are still doing things we don't know about," he says. Gene therapies hold so much promise for helping humanity, Dr. Miah says, that he has urged the WADA not to treat them simply as a new form of illegal doping.
For example, gene therapy potentially could be used to repair the injured muscles of athletes. Would that use also be illegal? By making genetic modification illegal, athletes may seek out "rogue scientists," he says.
Will gene-altered athletes kill sport?
They don't know what they're doing. That's why Miah favors legalization and regulation over a ban.
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The world of sports already recognizes differences in innate ability, he says, as shown by the paralympics competition for those with various disabilities, and the use of weight classes in sports such as boxing. Regulation would make it possible to look at the genetic profiles of athletes and decide which ones are suited to compete against one another, he says.
Right now, no test exists to detect genetic enhancement, though finding foreign DNA eventually might be possible by taking tissue samples from athletes. Equally unknown are the side effects. You might start to snap tendons and bones. There might be deleterious health effects. We really don't know.
Yet the benefits will be overwhelmingly attractive to athletes. Strength and speed aren't the only abilities that could be supersized. Red blood cells could be enhanced to carry more oxygen, revolutionizing endurance sports such as cycling, cross-country skiing, and long-distance running. The technique also might be used to alter the way athletes sense pain, Miah says, allowing them to push themselves harder and challenging sports' ancient work ethic: "No pain, no gain.
Genetically Modified Athletes: Biomedical Ethics, Gene Doping and Sport (Ethics and Sport)
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Configure custom resolver. Published by Routledge, London, UK. Leon Culbertson - - Journal of the Philosophy of Sport 33 1 By Andy Miah.
www.hiphopenation.com/mu-plugins/anne/dating-customs-in-paraguay.php London: Routledge, Genetics, Bioethics and Sport. Andy Miah - - Sport, Ethics and Philosophy 1 2 — Andy Miah - unknown. Doping and Cheating.
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